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Health and Social Care

Since its outset, the UK LSCITS Initiative had a major commitment to exploring and addressing issues in national-scale information technology systems to support services that provide health and social care. The UK National Health Service (NHS) has been the subject of what is probably the largest non-military IT project in the world, spending many billions of pounds on IT systems that enable data to be digitized at the point of capture, integrated with historical data for a patient (data that is held in some kind of national "cloud" repository), and displayed in a context-appropriate fashion for whichever practitioner needs that data. Several members of the LSCITS Initiative were working, primarily with the UK's NHS Information Centre, on issues in the science and engineering of large-scale complex socio-technical systems for health and social care.




  1. Tan, K., Baxter, G., Newell, S., Smye, S., Dear, P., Brownlee, K, & Darling, J. (2010). Knowledge elicitation for validation of a neonatal ventilation expert system utilising modified Delphi and focus group techniques. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68, pp. 344-354.
  2. Monk, A., Hone, K., Lines, L., Dowdall, A., Baxter, G., Blythe, M., & Wright, P. (2006). Towards a practical framework for managing the risks of selecting technology to support independent living. Applied Ergonomics, 37, 5, 599-606.
  3. Baxter, G.D., Monk, A.F., Tan, K., Dear, P.R.F., & Newell, S.J. (2005). Using cognitive task analysis to facilitate the integration of decision support systems into the neonatal intensive care unit. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 35, 3, 243-257.
  4. Baxter, G., Burns, A. & Tan, K. (2007). Evaluating timebands as a tool for structuring the design of socio-technical systems. In P. Bust (Ed.), Contemporary Ergonomics 2007 (pp. 55-60). London, UK: Taylor & Francis.
  5. Baxter, G.D. and Monk, A.F. (2006). A technique for the client-centred evaluation of electronic assistive technology. In P. Bust (Ed.), Contemporary Ergonomics 2006 (pp. 236-240). London, UK: Taylor & Francis.
  6. Baxter, G.D., Filipe, J.K., Miguel, A., & Tan, K. (2005). The effects of timing and collaboration on dependability in the neonatal intensive care unit. In F. Redmill and T. Anderson (Eds.), Proceedings of the Safety Critical Systems Symposium 2005 (pp.195-210). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.




Gordon Baxter, University of St Andrews

Gordon Baxter

Dr Baxter has a long standing interest in health and social care issues, particularly focusing on the dependability and usability of technology in these areas. He has worked with clinical staff from St James' University Hospital in Leeds, looking at the introduction of new technology into a neonatal intensive care setting, and with a range of social care organisations looking at the deployment and use of assistive technologies. He is also interested in the use of technology in preventive healthcare, and how it can be utilised to raise awareness and educate people about healthcare issues.

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Radu Calinescu, University of Aston

Radu Calinescu

Radu Calinescu is a Lecturer in Computing at Aston University, UK. Prior to this, he was a part-time Lecturer on the Software Engineering Programme and a Senior Researcher on the Formal Verification research theme at the University of Oxford. He holds a DPhil in Computation from the University of Oxford, and was awarded a British Computer Society Distinguished Dissertation Award. He has over ten years of academic and industrial research experience in developing complex software systems in areas including adaptive systems, model-driven architectures and information systems for cancer research. He has chaired or has been on the program committees of multiple international conferences on autonomic, adaptive and complex systems. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board for the Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems.

Radu Calinescu's research interests include model-driven development of service-oriented applications in the area of health informatics, and quality-of-service engineering for service-based healthcare systems deployed on the cloud.

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Dave Cliff, University of Bristol

Dave Cliff

Dave Cliff is the founding Director of the UK LSCITS Initiative, a role he has held since 2005. From the outset, Cliff's plans for the LSCITS Initiative were that is should have a major research commitment to the issues that arise when societies switch their health and social care (H&SC) systems to be heavily dependent on information technology (IT), such as the introduction of electronic healthcare records (EHR) in several European countries and in the USA. National H&SC IT systems such as EHR are manifestly large-scale, and are very often systems-of-systems whose constituent systems are both operationally and managerially independent with no central management authority. Cliff's personal research interests include the development of an engineering method for such large and complex "sociotechnical ecosystems", and the extent to which H&SC "ecosystems" bear fruitful comparison to other such sociotechnical systems, including those found in aerospace and defence, power generation and distribution, and in the global financial markets.

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George Despotou, University of York

George DespotouGeorge is a researcher in the high integrity systems engineering (HISE) group.
George has previously worked for the Software Systems Engineering Initiative (SSE), the Dependable Computing Systems Centre (DCSC) funded by BAE Systems and the Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP), in collaboration with BAE Systems, Qinetiq and Rolls-Royce.

He holds a PhD on dependability cases and co-evolution with complex critical systems, which defined the Dependability Case Metamodel (DCM). Current research activities and interests include requirements engineering and assurance of critical systems, safety analysis using model driven approaches (such as defence architectural frameworks DODAF & MODAF and enterprise modelling frameworks), and assurance of Systems of Systems.

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Xiaocheng Ge, University of York

Xiaocheng GeGE Xiaocheng received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China; and a PhD degree in computer science, under the supervision of Dr. Fiona Polack and Prof. Richard Paige, at University of York, UK. Before LSCITS project, he was a research associate in the EPSRC project eXGrid: Agile Development of High-Integrity Grid Middleware at Department of Computer Science. His work focused on the agile software development of high integrity system.


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Justin Keen, University of Leeds

Justin KeenJustin Keen is Professor of Health Politics in the Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds. His main research interests are in the governance of health care, in the application of system and network concepts to the organization and delivery of care, and in digital health care policies.




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Tim Kelly, University of York

Tim KellyDr Kelly is a Senior Lecturer within the Department of Computer Science at the University of York. He is also Academic Theme Leader for Dependability within the UK MoD-funded Software Systems Engineering Initiative. His research interests include safety case management, software safety analysis and justification, software architecture safety, certification of adaptive and learning systems, and the dependability of “Systems of Systems”. He has supervised a number of research projects in these areas with funding and support from Airbus, BAE SYSTEMS, Data Systems and Solutions, DTI/TSB, EPSRC, ERA Technology, Ministry of Defence, QinetiQ and Rolls-Royce. He has published over 150 papers on high integrity systems development and justification in international journals and conferences.

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Ali Khajeh-Hosseini, University of St Andrews

Ali Khajeh-HosseiniAli Khajeh-Hosseini is a PhD student at the St Andrews Cloud Computing Co-laboratory, where he is investigating the challenges of cloud migration and developing tools to support decision makers. He is also interested in private clouds, where an organisation such as the NHS could use its own cloud to host its applications and data. Ali has an MSc in High Performance Computing from the University of Edinburgh, and a BSc in Computer Science from the Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen.

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Richard Paige, University of York

Richard PaigeRichard Paige is Professor of Enterprise Systems at the University of York, and is director of the Engineering Doctorate Centre in Large-Scale Complex IT Systems. He leads research on enterprise systems, software and systems modelling, agile methods and formal methods at York. He is principal investigator on several EC and EPSRC projects in these areas, and collaborates with the NHS through a Knowledge Transfer Partnership with Connecting for Health.


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John Rooksby, University of St Andrews

John RooksbyJohn Rooksby is a senior research fellow at the University of St Andrews. He holds a PhD in Computer Science from the University of Manchester and has previously held research positions at Lancaster University and The University of Salford. His research interests lie in sociotechnical systems engineering, particularly in organisational and social issues in the development and deployment of technology. He has completed a number of studies in the context of health and social care, including the development and evaluation of large-scale incident reporting systems, of reporting systems for neuroradiology, and of information technology to support advisory work in mental healthcare.

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Ian Sommerville, University of St Andrews

Ian SommervilleIan Sommerville's interests are in the dependability of socio-technical systems and has been involved in a number of studies of healthcare systems from a socio-technical perspective. These include studies of hospital management, the deployment of new healthcare systems and assistive technologies in the home for elderly people.




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